Sims, 29, has agreed a two-year deal with the club from 2015.
His previous clubs include five years at St George Illawarra Dragons, making is first-grade debut in 2003, before a move to Brisbane Broncos in 2008.
He joined the Cowboys back in 2011 alongside his brother Tariq. Younger brother Korbin currently plays for NRL side the Newcastle Knights.
On signing for the Wolves Sims says: "I'm really looking forward to a new challenge at a great club. The time is right for my family and me to experience something new and we are really looking forward to this adventure. I have spoken to Tony Smith and he has told me much about the club, its culture and its professionalism.
"While my focus remains on helping the North Queensland Cowboys to the semi-finals and hopefully a premiership, I'm also excited about what awaits me overseas next year."
Warrington head of coaching and rugby Tony Smith adds: "Ashton is an outstanding, experienced player who is going to be a quality addition to the Warrington Wolves club. His ambition and wealth of experience will be of real value, particularly for the development of the young, talented crop of forwards we have coming through. He has been a top performer in the NRL for a number of years and caught the eye of many clubs with his performances in the World Cup. He's a big physical man who is going to be a fantastic acquisition to an already impressive pack of hard working forwards."Like